Definitions of Flavours

Definitions according to the Turkish Food Codex Flavour and Food Components That Carry Flavour Giving Properties Regulations and the EU flavour regulation number 1334/2008 are listed below:

Important Note: Within the context of the Turkish Food Codex Flavour and Food Components That Carry Flavour Giving Properties Regulations, the term “flavour” has been amended as “flavour giving”. The term “flavour giving” should be used in the contents section of product labels, terms such as “strawberry flavoured”, “cocoa flavoured” can be used on the product description found on the products.


Flavours are not intended to be used as is, they are flavours, flavour preparations, thermal process flavours, smoke flavours, flavour precursors, other flavours, or products obtained by the mixture of the above mentioned flavours that are used to add or change the taste and/or odour of the foods.

Flavour Preparations:

These are products, other than natural flavour substances, that carry flavour properties; are obtained from materials that are not of food, vegetable, animal or microbial origin, and produced by applying the appropriate physical, enzymatic or microbiological processes. Flavour preparations, as the name explains, contain various flavour substances originating from the sources they are obtained from. Vanilla extract and orange oil are examples for flavour preparations.

Natural Flavour Substances:

If the flavour substance has been obtained from vegetable, animal or microbial originating material, and has gone through the appropriate physical, enzymatic or microbiological process, it is considered to be “natural”. They exist in nature and they correspond to substances present in nature. Vanillin obtained from natural vanilla is an example for natural flavours.

Flavour Substances:

These are defined chemical substances which have flavour properties.

Thermal Process Flavours:

These products obtained by heat treatment are a mixture of ingredients consisting of food and/or non-food sources not necessarily having flavour properties themselves. Among the nitrogen sources used are amino acids and their salts, and proteins obtained from foods. Dextrose/glucose and xylose are examples for reducing sugars.

Thermal process flavours have a complex composition which is comparable to the composition of kitchen cooked food (or prepared similarly).

Smoke Flavour:

Smoke flavour is a product obtained by the fractional distillation and purification of  condensed smoke used in the food smoking process.

Flavour Precursor:

Flavour precursor is a product which does not need to have flavour properties itself, and is intentionally added to food for the sole purpose of producing flavour by breaking down or reacting with other components during food processing. Examples for flavour precursors include carbohydrates, oligopeptides and amino acids.

Other Flavours:

If a flavour material does not fall under the definitions of flavour substances, natural flavour substances, flavour preparations, thermal process flavours, smoke flavours or flavour precursors, it is classified as “other flavours”.